Crystal structures provide structural rationales for the transport stoichiometry of the gastric proton pump, which suffices the energy requirement for the generation of a million-fold proton gradient across the membrane.
A transport mechanism is uncovered in the major drug-efflux system in E. coli involving two remote alternating-access conformational cycles, which could provide the basis for the development of allosteric inhibitors against multidrug resistance.
The tripartite drug efflux pump AcrA-AcrB-TolC, representative of a wide group of pumps from Gram-negative bacteria, enters a transport-competent state through long-distance conformational changes that switch the channel from a closed to an open state.
Transient Ca elevations of cytoplasmic calcium in cardiac myocytes profoundly activate cardiac Na/K pump activity in parallel with physical-chemical changes of the sarcolemma but without involvement of conventional signaling mechanisms.
Computations based on detailed atomic models explain how the ATP-driven sodium-potassium pump avoids transporting the wrong type of ions in order to maintain the physiological concentration of sodium and potassium ions across the cell membrane.