Memory over 24 hours was impaired in Parkinson's patients off, rather than on, dopaminergic medication during reinforcement learning, whereas dopamine did not affect positive and negative reinforcement, in contrast to previous studies.
The structure of human PINK1 explains structural regulation and clarity on the impact of loss of function disease-associated mutations, which may stimulate future drug discovery efforts for both familial and idiopathic Parkinson's disease.
In contrast to previous post-mortem or fixed tissue histochemical reports, live calcium and mitochondrial imaging data suggest that the enteric nervous system is not generally affected in Parkinson's disease patients.
The spiking activity of the subthalamic nucleus, rather than the activity of striatal projection neurons, orchestrates basal ganglia downstream activity and output commands in health and Parkinson’s disease.
A crucial step during the mitophagy cascade involves the disassembly of connections between mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum via the retrotranslocation of Mfn2 tethering complexes by the Parkinson's disease genes PARKIN and PINK1, as well as the ATPase VCP/p97.