Memory over 24 hours was impaired in Parkinson's patients off, rather than on, dopaminergic medication during reinforcement learning, whereas dopamine did not affect positive and negative reinforcement, in contrast to previous studies.
The structure of human PINK1 explains structural regulation and clarity on the impact of loss of function disease-associated mutations, which may stimulate future drug discovery efforts for both familial and idiopathic Parkinson's disease.
Long studied in the context of the central nervous system, LRRK2 also functions in peripheral immunity by maintaining mitochondrial homeostasis in macrophages to regulate the type I interferon response.
Pathogenic LRRK2kinase requires Rab10 and RILPL1 to block primary cilia formation, shortening cilia on cholinergic neurons needed for a hedgehog driven circuit that supports dopaminergic neurons in mouse brain.
The alpha-synuclein fibril structure reported here buries residues 50-57 at the interface between its two protofilaments, suggesting that familial Parkinson's disease associated mutations in these residues lead to a structure not compatible with the one presented here.