Dopaminergic medication has differential effects on the discovered electrophysiological networks, which could be used to develop new electrical and pharmacological interventions in Parkinson’s disease.
Although human Parkinson's disease is linked to dopamine loss, two distinct mutations in a kinase associated with familial Parkinson's operate downstream, altering excitatory synapses on dopamine-sensing neurons.
The spiking activity of the subthalamic nucleus, rather than the activity of striatal projection neurons, orchestrates basal ganglia downstream activity and output commands in health and Parkinson’s disease.
High-frequency stimulation of the upper thoracic spinal cord corrects anticipatory postural adjustments and improving gait efficiency and inhibiting freezing of gait episodes in advanced Parkinson's disease.
In contrast to previous post-mortem or fixed tissue histochemical reports, live calcium and mitochondrial imaging data suggest that the enteric nervous system is not generally affected in Parkinson's disease patients.