EPO/JAK2/PKA signaling cascade via AKAP10 relocalization to the outer mitochondrial membrane results in the phosphorylation of the terminal heme synthesis enzyme ferrochelatase, which contributes to heme production in red cells.
Genomic evidence suggests that L-gulonolactone oxidase-the terminal enzyme in vitamin C synthesis, which has been repeatedly lost throughout animal evolution-was lost in plants and other photosynthetic eukaryotes following plastid acquisition.
Heme accumulation is toxic, but deficiency of the heme transporter HRG1/SLC48A1 causes heme sequestration and crystallization into hemozoin within enlarged lysosomes of macrophages, thereby conferring heme tolerance to mammals.
SAK1, a novel cytoplasmic phosphoprotein, is a key intermediate component of the retrograde signaling pathway controlling nuclear gene expression during acclimation of Chlamydomonas cells to singlet oxygen stress.
Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) analysis in polyextremophile red algae (Cyanidiales) provides explanations for the nonexistence of cumulative effects and eukaryotic pangenomes, and highlights differences between HGT and native genes.
Despite billions of years of divergence, a majority of prokaryotic genes can functionally replace their essential eukaryotic counterparts, revealing broad preservation of ancestral functions and identifying heme biosynthesis as a near-universally swappable pathway.