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    1. Neuroscience

    Risk of punishment influences discrete and coordinated encoding of reward-guided actions by prefrontal cortex and VTA neurons

    Junchol Park, Bita Moghaddam
    Risk of punishment during reward seeking behavior is associated with a functional "disconnection" of the PFC-VTA circuit due to a transient loss of VTA-driven theta oscillation.
    1. Genetics and Genomics
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    APOL1 renal risk variants have contrasting resistance and susceptibility associations with African trypanosomiasis

    Anneli Cooper et al.
    Common kidney disease risk variants in African populations are associated with reduced susceptibility to deadly African trypanosomes.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Ric-8A, a G protein chaperone with nucleotide exchange activity induces long-range secondary structure changes in Gα

    Ravi Kant et al.
    Hydrogen-Deuterium exchange experiments show that Ric-8A induces similar dynamic changes in the structure of Gα as G protein-coupled receptors, yet protects a larger surface of the nucleotide-binding Ras domain.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Developmental Biology

    Dpp from the anterior stripe of cells is crucial for the growth of the Drosophila wing disc

    Shinya Matsuda, Markus Affolter
    A recent report proposing that the dpp stripe (the main source of the protein dpp) is dispensable for Drosophila wing disc growth missed the critical role on growth due to imprecise spatial removal of dpp.
    1. Evolutionary Biology

    Sperm competition risk drives rapid ejaculate adjustments mediated by seminal fluid

    Michael J Bartlett et al.
    Seminal fluid harbours the as yet unknown mechanism that facilitates rapid adjustment of sperm velocity in response to changing sperm competition risk.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Human Biology and Medicine

    Mechanism and preclinical prevention of increased breast cancer risk caused by pregnancy

    Svasti Haricharan et al.
    The transcription factor STAT5 mediates the increased breast cancer risk associated with a late age pregnancy, but intermittent anti-STAT5 treatment can lower this risk and thus prevent breast cancer.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Developmental Biology

    Myoblast cytonemes mediate Wg signaling from the wing imaginal disc and Delta-Notch signaling to the air sac primordium

    Hai Huang, Thomas B Kornberg
    Cytonemes mediate, and are essential for, Wingless signaling from the Drosophila wing disc to disc-associated myoblasts and for Delta-Notch signaling from these myoblasts to the dorsal air sac primordium.
    1. Epidemiology and Global Health

    A century of trends in adult human height

    NCD Risk Factor Collaboration (NCD-RisC)
    Height in early adulthood is an indicator that integrates across different dimensions of sustainable human development with links to health and longevity, nutrition, education and economic productivity.