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    1. Human Biology and Medicine
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Gut microbiota density influences host physiology and is shaped by host and microbial factors

    Eduardo J Contijoch et al.
    The density of the gut microbiota influences the host immune system and adiposity, and can be therapeutically manipulated.
    1. Evolutionary Biology
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Evolutionary pathways of repeat protein topology in bacterial outer membrane proteins

    Meghan Whitney Franklin et al.
    There is a strand-based evolutionary mechanism for the diversification of outer membrane proteins, which has implications for how repeat proteins are created and for how outer membrane proteins fold.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology

    RNA-binding proteins distinguish between similar sequence motifs to promote targeted deadenylation by Ccr4-Not

    Michael W Webster et al.
    Biochemical reconstitution of deadenylation and analysis of binding kinetics reveals how RNA-binding proteins select their mRNA targets.
    1. Developmental Biology

    Primed Track, high-fidelity lineage tracing in mouse pre-implantation embryos using primed conversion of photoconvertible proteins

    Maaike Welling et al.
    Primed Track is an image analysis tool that allows for computational correction of drifting specimen to enable accurate lineage tracing of mammalian pre-implantation development even for larger imaging time intervals.
    1. Evolutionary Biology
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    Immune genes are hotspots of shared positive selection across birds and mammals

    Allison J Shultz, Timothy B Sackton
    Pathogens, particularly viruses, target the same genes over deep evolutionary time, resulting in shared signatures of positive selection and transcriptional responses at the same genes.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Synergy between RecBCD subunits is essential for efficient DNA unwinding

    Rani Zananiri et al.
    A new optical tweezers assay sheds light on the mechanism of cooperation and force generation by the subunits of RecBCD, critical for the repair of double strand breaks in bacteria.
    1. Immunology and Inflammation

    HDAC3 restrains CD8-lineage genes to maintain a bi-potential state in CD4+CD8+ thymocytes for CD4-lineage commitment

    Rachael Laura Philips et al.
    CD4 lineage commitment requires HDAC3 to prevent premature upregulation of CD8 lineage genes during T cell development.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Chromosomes and Gene Expression

    The elemental mechanism of transcriptional pausing

    Jason Saba et al.
    Biochemical analyses of transcription complexes, including kinetic studies and probes of translocational and conformational states, establish the elemental mechanism of pausing, which underlies regulation of gene expression in all organisms.
    1. Evolutionary Biology
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Symbiont location, host fitness, and possible coadaptation in a symbiosis between social amoebae and bacteria

    Longfei Shu et al.
    Morphological and fitness defects imposed on amoebae hosts by Burkholderia symbionts demonstrates symbiont species-specific effects and provides evidence of host adaptation to naturally acquired symbionts.
    1. Cell Biology

    The unfolded protein response and endoplasmic reticulum protein targeting machineries converge on the stress sensor IRE1

    Diego Acosta-Alvear et al.
    The coordination of protein targeting to the endoplasmic reticulum and the unfolded protein response through the stress sensor IRE1 ensures quality control of the secreted and transmembrane proteomes.