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    1. Neuroscience

    Clearance of beta-amyloid is facilitated by apolipoprotein E and circulating high-density lipoproteins in bioengineered human vessels

    Jerome Robert et al.
    Modelling beta-amyloid deposition in bioengineered human vessels represents a notable advance to further investigate the role of the vasculature in Alzheimer's disease.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Hypoxia-induced metabolic stress in retinal pigment epithelial cells is sufficient to induce photoreceptor degeneration

    Toshihide Kurihara et al.
    Mouse models in which hypoxia can be genetically triggered in retinal pigmented epithelial cells show that hypoxia-induced metabolic stress alone can lead to photoreceptor atrophy/dysfunction.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Developmental Biology

    Retinal stem cells modulate proliferative parameters to coordinate post-embryonic morphogenesis in the eye of fish

    Erika Tsingos et al.
    3D niche topology imposes a spatially biased random stem cell loss, which is differentially fine-tuned in neural retina and retinal pigmented epithelium to regulate growth, shape, and cellular topology.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Neural retina-specific Aldh1a1 controls dorsal choroidal vascular development via Sox9 expression in retinal pigment epithelial cells

    So Goto et al.
    Neural retina-derived retinoic acids synthesized by Aldh1a1 control choroidal vascular development by regulating RPE-secreted VEGF.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    E. coli TraR allosterically regulates transcription initiation by altering RNA polymerase conformation

    James Chen et al.
    Cryo-electron microscopy structures, combined with biochemical experiments, show how the E. coli F element-encoded TraR protein regulates transcription initiation by altering RNA polymerase conformation and conformational heterogeneity.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression

    Translation affects mRNA stability in a codon-dependent manner in human cells

    Qiushuang Wu et al.
    Genomic-profiles and reporters reveal that the three-nucleotide ‘words’ read by the ribosome, codons, have a strong effect on mRNA stability, impacting the homeostatic mRNA and protein levels in human cells.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Structure and function of the mycobacterial transcription initiation complex with the essential regulator RbpA

    Elizabeth A Hubin et al.
    The essential mycobacterial transcription factor RbpA interacts with promoter DNA and cooperates with another essential transcription factor, CarD, to stimulate the formation of an intermediate leading to the open promoter complex.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Uncovering an allosteric mode of action for a selective inhibitor of human Bloom syndrome protein

    Xiangrong Chen et al.
    Discovery and characterisation of a novel allosteric inhibitor-binding site in human Bloom syndrome protein.
    1. Cancer Biology

    Epigenetic regulation of mammalian Hedgehog signaling to the stroma determines the molecular subtype of bladder cancer

    SungEun Kim et al.
    Pharmacologic inhibition of DNA methylation restrains the growth of urothelial carcinoma by subtype conversion through heightened stromal Hedgehog pathway activity.
    1. Cancer Biology

    Assessing the mechanism and therapeutic potential of modulators of the human Mediator complex-associated protein kinases

    Paul A Clarke et al.
    Detailed molecular profiling investigations alongside antitumor testing and tolerability studies in animals suggest caution when considering the clinical development of inhibitors of CDK8 and CDK19, since a clear therapeutic window could not be demonstrated with two structurally distinct, potent and selective prototype drugs.