Serial-Block-Face Scanning Electron Microscopy (SBF-SEM) associated with biomolecular analysis show that chloroplast differentiation proceeds by distinct ‘structure establishment’ and ‘chloroplast proliferation’ phases, each with differential protein and lipid regulation.
Mirroring human patients with ARID1B mutations, Arid1b haploinsufficient mice exhibited numerous neuropsychiatric defects and revealed IGF1 deficiency related growth impairment that could be ameliorated with growth hormone supplementation.
Developing long bones contain distinct mesenchymal stem-cell populations derived from mesoderm and neural crest, which have specialized functions in skeleton formation and the establishment of the hematopoietic stem-cell niche, respectively.
The structure of the yeast RSC complex, a member of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling family, determined by cryo-electron microscopy, reveals a conserved structural core and the mode of nucleosome engagement.
Discovering that Hoxb1 acts as a repressor of cardiac differentiation on second heart field progenitor cells helps us to understand the etiology of congenital heart defects such as atrioventricular septal defects.
Neocortical synapses in layer 4 of the human temporal lobe neocortex were quantitatively characterized, at the subcellular level, using high-end, high-resolution electron microscopy and 3D-volume reconstructions.
The chromatin remodeler and tumor suppressor SMARCB1 acts to restrict superenhancer function to direct neural differentiation of embryonic stem cells while repressing bivalent gene activity in the pluripotent state.