Environmental transmission is atypical of symbionts that have undergone genome degradation, yet genetically reduced deep-sea anglerfish symbionts likely persist in the deep sea biome in search of a new host.
The serine protease Matriptase orchestrates simultaneous epithelial cell motility and inflammation in pathological states through respective activation of the MAPK pathway and generation of hydrogen peroxide.
Eph receptor signaling commonly excludes migrating embryonic cells from regions of high ligand density; however, in sea urchin embryos pigmented immunocytes are attracted to regions expressing high levels of Ephrin.
During early embryogenesis of the sea urchin, asymmetrical positioning of the dorsal/ventral organizer relies upon the suppression of organizer activities in dorsal blastomeres by the Hbox12 homeodomain-containing repressor.
The gene regulatory network controlling directed cell migration in a sea urchin is strikingly similar to a sub-circuit for eye development in Drosophila, suggesting that ancient systems-level controls may be adapted for diverse functions in different animals.
The first structure of a bacteriophage-encoded S-adenosyl methionine degrading enzyme was solved and demonstrated to catalyze a unimolecular lyase reaction occurring at the domain interface of a trimeric structure.