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    1. Cell Biology
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Extensive ribosome and RF2 rearrangements during translation termination

    Egor Svidritskiy et al.
    Ensemble cryo-EM visualizes how structural rearrangements poise the newly made protein and release factor RF2 to dissociate in preparation for ribosome recycling.
    1. Genetics and Genomics

    Background selection and biased gene conversion affect more than 95% of the human genome and bias demographic inferences

    Fanny Pouyet et al.
    Background selection and GC-biased gene conversion impact the human genome to a much larger extent than previously recognized in low and high recombination rate regions, respectively.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Homology sensing via non-linear amplification of sequence-dependent pausing by RecQ helicase

    Yeonee Seol et al.
    The rate of DNA unwinding by RecQ helicases is dramatically modulated by the DNA duplex stability in a geometry-dependent manner, providing an intrinsic mechanism for suppressing illegitimate recombination.
    1. Neuroscience

    Decreased brain connectivity in smoking contrasts with increased connectivity in drinking

    Wei Cheng et al.
    The findings have a major impact in understanding the different reward systems involved in two types of addictive behavior, and these advances have implications for prevention and treatment.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Cell Biology

    The ER–Golgi intermediate compartment is a key membrane source for the LC3 lipidation step of autophagosome biogenesis

    Liang Ge et al.
    A cell-free biochemical assay for protein lipidation identifies the ER–Golgi intermediate compartment as a key early station in the formation of an autophagosome.
    1. Cell Biology

    EDEM2 stably disulfide-bonded to TXNDC11 catalyzes the first mannose trimming step in mammalian glycoprotein ERAD

    Ginto George et al.
    EDEM2 containing mannosidase homology domain functions as an initiator of endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation of misfolded glycoproteins by conversion of Man9GlcNAc2 to Man8GlcNAc2, only when complexed with TXNDC11 containing thioredoxin-like domains.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    A dedicated diribonucleotidase resolves a key bottleneck for the terminal step of RNA degradation

    Soo-Kyoung Kim et al.
    RNA degradation is completed through specific intermediates, such as diribonucleotides, which must be removed from the cells by a specific enzyme.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Cell Biology

    Identification of a small molecule inhibitor that stalls splicing at an early step of spliceosome activation

    Anzhalika Sidarovich et al.
    Stalling spliceosome assembly at a novel step before Bact complex formation reveals new insights into the extensive RNP rearrangements and compositional changes that accompany the intricate process of spliceosome activation.
    1. Neuroscience

    Changing the responses of cortical neurons from sub- to suprathreshold using single spikes in vivo

    Verena Pawlak et al.
    Changing the order in which presynaptic and postsynaptic cells are repeatedly activated can change what a mammalian visual cortex neuron communicates to downstream neurons.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Cell Biology

    Intracellular cholesterol trafficking is dependent upon NPC2 interaction with lysobisphosphatidic acid

    Leslie A McCauliff et al.
    Sterol kinetics and cell-based assays reveal a heretofore unknown step in cholesterol trafficking through the endolysosomal compartment, involving a direct functional interaction between NPC2 and lysosbisphosphatidic acid.