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    1. Evolutionary Biology

    Adaptation in protein fitness landscapes is facilitated by indirect paths

    Nicholas C Wu et al.
    The extra dimensions in protein sequence space open up indirect paths of adaptation and alleviate the constraint on the selective accessibility to high fitness genotypes.
    1. Evolutionary Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Metazoan evolution of glutamate receptors reveals unreported phylogenetic groups and divergent lineage-specific events

    David Ramos-Vicente et al.
    The animal phylogeny of glutamate receptors indicates that vertebrate types do not account for all receptor classes originated during evolution, neither are they the pinnacle of a linear evolutive process.
    1. Evolutionary Biology

    Metabolic co-dependence drives the evolutionarily ancient Hydra–Chlorella symbiosis

    Mayuko Hamada et al.
    The symbiotic relationship between Hydra and Chlorella is driven by metabolic co-dependence and characterized by changes in the photobiont genome in terms of lack of genes essential in free-living algae.
    1. Immunology and Inflammation
    2. Medicine

    Longitudinal proteomic profiling of dialysis patients with COVID-19 reveals markers of severity and predictors of death

    Jack Gisby et al.
    Severe COVID-19 is characterised by a plasma proteomic biomarker signature, indicating innate immune activation, leucocyte–endothelial interactions, and epithelial injury.
    1. Developmental Biology

    Building the vertebrate codex using the gene breaking protein trap library

    Noriko Ichino et al.
    The analysis of the first 1000 revertible protein trap alleles in zebrafish resulted in new functional genomic annotations and produced a panel of potential new models of human disease.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Structural basis for ion selectivity in TMEM175 K+ channels

    Janine D Brunner et al.
    Structural and functional analysis of a recently discovered non-canonical potassium channel family reveals a unique selectivity filter that is exposed to permeating ions only in the conductive state.
    1. Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine

    Role of IL-4 in bone marrow driven dysregulated angiogenesis and age-related macular degeneration

    Takashi Baba et al.
    The IL-4/IL-4Rα axis directory promotes pathological angiogenesis through communications with bone marrow cells leading to neovascular age-related macular degeneration.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Immunology and Inflammation

    Non-canonical antagonism of PI3K by the kinase Itpkb delays thymocyte β-selection and renders it Notch-dependent

    Luise Westernberg et al.
    Antagonistic signaling by the kinases PI3K and Itpkb limits the kinetics and enforces the Notch-dependence of beta-selection – the most important cell-fate determining process in alpha beta T cell development.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    The postsynaptic t-SNARE Syntaxin 4 controls traffic of Neuroligin 1 and Synaptotagmin 4 to regulate retrograde signaling

    Kathryn P Harris et al.
    Syntaxin 4 regulates retrograde signaling in the postsynaptic compartment at Drosophila synapses by controlling trafficking of Neuroligin and Synaptotagmin 4 cargo.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Cell Biology

    A mitotic kinase scaffold depleted in testicular seminomas impacts spindle orientation in germ line stem cells

    Heidi Hehnly et al.
    A protein kinase complex that is important for cell division is lost in testicular seminoma, which is a common cancer in men.