Eph receptor signaling commonly excludes migrating embryonic cells from regions of high ligand density; however, in sea urchin embryos pigmented immunocytes are attracted to regions expressing high levels of Ephrin.
During early embryogenesis of the sea urchin, asymmetrical positioning of the dorsal/ventral organizer relies upon the suppression of organizer activities in dorsal blastomeres by the Hbox12 homeodomain-containing repressor.
The gene regulatory network controlling directed cell migration in a sea urchin is strikingly similar to a sub-circuit for eye development in Drosophila, suggesting that ancient systems-level controls may be adapted for diverse functions in different animals.
Environmental transmission is atypical of symbionts that have undergone genome degradation, yet genetically reduced deep-sea anglerfish symbionts likely persist in the deep sea biome in search of a new host.
Identification and functional characterization of the first non-chordate kisspeptin neuropeptide system in the sea cucumber indicates the ancient origin of the intracellular signaling and physiological functions of this molecular system.
Expression of two highly regulated subfamilies of the complex multigene family encoding IL-17 cytokines in the purple sea urchin are sequentially activated in a larval gut-associated inflammation model and modulate downstream gene expression in the gut epithelium.
Cellular carbon accumulation systems are a fundamental prerequisite for biomineralization to stabilize pH and to supply inorganic carbon for CaCO3 precipitation under changing environmental conditions.