While the basal ganglia have long been thought to mediate learning through dopamine-dependent striatal plasticity, their regulation of motor thalamus plays an unexpected and critical role in reinforcement.
Synthetic single domain antibody libraries and a binder selection cascade encompassing ribosome and phage display enable the selection of conformation-specific binders against previously intractable membrane proteins within three weeks.
An image-based multiplex autophagosome RNAi screen targeting all Rab GTPases as well as their GAPs and GEFs identifies the Rab GEF SMCR8 as multifaceted autophagy modulator, which regulates kinase activity and gene expression of ULK1.
Loss of an amino acid transporter and tissue depletion of nitric oxide worsens the intestinal function of CF mice, a finding that potentially explains variation in disease severity amongst CF individuals.
Metabolic relationships between cells in the retina and retinal pigment epithelium are fundamental to retinal function, retinal disease and age-related vision loss and they may provide strategies for metabolism-based therapies.