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    1. Cell Biology
    2. Immunology and Inflammation

    Diverse stimuli engage different neutrophil extracellular trap pathways

    Elaine F Kenny et al.
    NETs induction, a central component of the innate immune response, utilises assorted signalling pathways as demonstrated through the analysis of healthy and patient neutrophils treated with five distinct stimuli.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Adaptive tuning of mutation rates allows fast response to lethal stress in Escherichia coli

    Toon Swings et al.
    Population mutation rates are highly flexible and evolvable under extreme stress conditions, matching changes in selective pressure to avoid extinction of the entire population.
    1. Evolutionary Biology
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Ribosomal mutations promote the evolution of antibiotic resistance in a multidrug environment

    James E Gomez et al.
    Mutations in several components of a bacterial ribosome are shown to broadly decrease antibiotic and stress sensitivity, and readily accessible reversion mutations allow these ribosomal mutations to serve as stepping stones to high level antibiotic resistance.
    1. Genetics and Genomics
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Whole genome comparison of a large collection of mycobacteriophages reveals a continuum of phage genetic diversity

    Welkin H Pope et al.
    A continuum of genome relationships is discovered through comparative genomics of 627 sequenced mycobacteriophages isolated and characterized in an integrated research/education initiative.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Architectural principles for Hfq/Crc-mediated regulation of gene expression

    Xue Yuan Pei et al.
    Structural insights show how RNA chaperones cooperate to recognise defined target transcripts and suppress gene expression.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Structural basis of ribosomal peptide macrocyclization in plants

    Joel Haywood et al.
    The first crystal structure of an active plant asparaginyl endopeptidase reveals a tetrahedral intermediate state in its active site, which may help to explain why these enzymes have been independently recruited to perform peptide macrocyclization.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Plasticity of Escherichia coli cell wall metabolism promotes fitness and antibiotic resistance across environmental conditions

    Elizabeth A Mueller et al.
    Environmental specialization of bacterial cell wall synthases influences intrinsic resistance to cell wall active antibiotics.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    ISG15 counteracts Listeria monocytogenes infection

    Lilliana Radoshevich et al.
    The induction of ISG15 during bacterial infection can be independent of Type I Interferons and leads to an increase in the secretion of cytokines known to be critical for bacterial clearance.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Membrane insertion of α-xenorhabdolysin in near-atomic detail

    Evelyn Schubert et al.
    Cryo-EM and X-ray structures of α-xenorhabdolysin in soluble and pore form of Xenorhabdus nematophila give novel insights into the mechanism of action of bi-component α-pore-forming toxins.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Structural basis of malodour precursor transport in the human axilla

    Gurdeep S Minhas et al.
    Discovery of the structural basis for recognition and uptake of a human precursor for body odour production reveals an important role for bacterial peptide transport and novel routes to prevent its production in humans.