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    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    A switch in surface polymer biogenesis triggers growth-phase-dependent and antibiotic-induced bacteriolysis

    Josué Flores-Kim et al.
    Penicillin induces bacterial cell lysis by altering cell surface polymer biogenesis to cause the misactivation of a cell wall degrading enzyme.
    1. Epidemiology and Global Health
    2. Medicine

    Seasonal variation and etiologic inferences of childhood pneumonia and diarrhea mortality in India

    Daniel S Farrar et al.
    Nationally-representative verbal autopsies can be linked to seasonal patterns, clinical syndromes, and climate regions to describe novel insights regarding the microbiologic etiologies of childhood pneumonia and diarrhea in India.
    1. Ecology
    2. Evolutionary Biology

    Understanding the evolution of multiple drug resistance in structured populations

    David V McLeod, Sylvain Gandon
    The evolution of multidrug resistance can be most easily understood by focusing upon the dynamical equations of linkage disequilibrium.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Immunology and Inflammation

    The mucosal adjuvant cyclic di-GMP enhances antigen uptake and selectively activates pinocytosis-efficient cells in vivo

    Steven M Blaauboer et al.
    In mice, cyclic di-GMP is an effective mucosal pneumococcal vaccine adjuvant that stimulates the immune response via two distinct mechanisms.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Cerebrospinal fluid proteome maps detect pathogen-specific host response patterns in meningitis

    Anahita Bakochi et al.
    Statistical analysis and LASSO regression modeling provide insights into pathogen-specific host response patterns in cerebrospinal fluid from different disease etiologies to support future classification of pathogen type based on host response patterns in meningitis.
    1. Immunology and Inflammation

    Expansion of intestinal Prevotella copri correlates with enhanced susceptibility to arthritis

    Jose U Scher et al.
    The sequencing of microbial genomes reveals that the presence of a particular microbial species in the gut may increase the risk of the autoimmune disease rheumatoid arthritis.
    1. Immunology and Inflammation
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Chronic ethanol consumption compromises neutrophil function in acute pulmonary Aspergillus fumigatus infection

    Nathalia Luisa Sousa de Oliveira Malacco et al.
    Cell biology analysis demonstrated for the first time the effect of chronic ethanol consumption in neutrophil impaired migration by CXCR2 downregulation and neutrophil function during acute Aspergillus fumigatus infection.
    1. Physics of Living Systems

    Surface-to-volume scaling and aspect ratio preservation in rod-shaped bacteria

    Nikola Ojkic et al.
    Rod-shaped bacteria preserve their aspect ratios and surface-to-volume scaling by maintaining a homeostatic balance between the rates of cell elongation and division protein synthesis.
    1. Epidemiology and Global Health

    Lives saved with vaccination for 10 pathogens across 112 countries in a pre-COVID-19 world

    Jaspreet Toor et al.
    Vaccination activities that occurred before the COVID-19 pandemic, 2000-2019, are estimated to avert 50 million deaths, highlighting the enormous benefits of continued and improving vaccination.
    1. Genetics and Genomics
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Panton–Valentine leucocidin is the key determinant of Staphylococcus aureus pyomyositis in a bacterial GWAS

    Bernadette C Young et al.
    Genome-wide association studies have established staphylococcal pyomyositis as a disease whose pathogenesis depends critically on expression of a single toxin, Panton–Valentine leukocidin.