Cellular carbon accumulation systems are a fundamental prerequisite for biomineralization to stabilize pH and to supply inorganic carbon for CaCO3 precipitation under changing environmental conditions.
Expression of two highly regulated subfamilies of the complex multigene family encoding IL-17 cytokines in the purple sea urchin are sequentially activated in a larval gut-associated inflammation model and modulate downstream gene expression in the gut epithelium.
The animal phylogeny of glutamate receptors indicates that vertebrate types do not account for all receptor classes originated during evolution, neither are they the pinnacle of a linear evolutive process.
Discovery of a novel neuropeptide signalling system in a deuterostome invertebrate reveals the evolutionary origin of prolactin-releasing peptide and its relationship with neuropeptides in protostome invertebrates.
Eph receptor signaling commonly excludes migrating embryonic cells from regions of high ligand density; however, in sea urchin embryos pigmented immunocytes are attracted to regions expressing high levels of Ephrin.