In transgenesis assays involving diploid model organisms, two clearly distinguishable transformation markers embedded in interweaved, but incompatible Lox site pairs allow the systematic creation of homozygous transgenic lines and minimize the number of wasted animals.
mille-pattes micropeptides have conserved function in insect embryonic patterning together with transcription factor Shaven-baby and ubiquitin ligase Ubr3, except in flies wherein restoring broad embryonic Svb expression restores patterning potency.
The structure of human PINK1 explains structural regulation and clarity on the impact of loss of function disease-associated mutations, which may stimulate future drug discovery efforts for both familial and idiopathic Parkinson's disease.
Sperm and egg development are temperature sensitive, enabling males and females to significantly improve their reproductive success by matching gamete function to varying thermal environments for fertilisation and offspring development.
Pair-rule genes in the wasp Nasonia function as in Drosophila in patterning anterior segments, and similar to ancestral insects in patterning posterior segments, illustrating a mixed-mode transition state between short and long germ embryogenesis.