Cellular carbon accumulation systems are a fundamental prerequisite for biomineralization to stabilize pH and to supply inorganic carbon for CaCO3 precipitation under changing environmental conditions.
Computer simulations of the evolution of broadly neutralizing antibodies against HIV suggest that non-traditional pathways involving framework mutations which lead initially to increased antibody flexibility do occur, but can be avoided by appropriate vaccine design.
New experiments and theory reveal how the ability to see image details depends upon photoreceptor function and eye movements, and how fruit flies (Drosophila) see spatial details beyond the optical limit of their compound eyes.
The first genomic view of beetle luciferase evolution indicates evolutionary independence of luciferase between fireflies and click-beetles, and provide valuable datasets which will accelerate the discovery of new biotechnological tools.
Cyclin-dependentkinase 2 (Cdk2), the master regulator of S phase events during the cell cycle, controls the earliest step in the motile ciliogenesis pathway in quiescent multiciliatedairway epithelial cells.
A fundamental lower-bound on memory recall precision, which declines with storage duration and number of stored items, is derived, and human performance is shown to be well-fit by this theoretical bound.