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    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology

    Real-time monitoring of peptidoglycan synthesis by membrane-reconstituted penicillin-binding proteins

    Víctor M Hernández-Rocamora et al.
    The synthesis of bacterial cell wall peptidoglycan was reconstituted in lipid bilayers and detected by a novel Förster resonance energy transfer real-time assay.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Microbiota functional activity biosensors for characterizing nutrient metabolism in vivo

    Darryl A Wesener et al.
    A method has been developed to characterize the expressed biochemical activities of gut microbial communities using retrievable, microscopic, fluorescent-labeled glass beads containing chemically bound surface biomolecules.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology

    Identification of host proteins differentially associated with HIV-1 RNA splice variants

    Rachel Knoener et al.
    The distinct protein-RNA interactomes of HIV-1 RNA splice forms are revealed using a powerful multiplex strategy for RNA capture and mass spectrometric analysis.
    1. Physics of Living Systems
    2. Immunology and Inflammation

    Early life imprints the hierarchy of T cell clone sizes

    Mario U Gaimann et al.
    The rapid development of immune memory in infancy shapes the composition of T cell defenses throughout the human lifespan.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Structure of dual BON-domain protein DolP identifies phospholipid binding as a new mechanism for protein localisation

    Jack Alfred Bryant et al.
    Analysis of the E. coli protein DolP reveals the first dual BON-domain structure and identifies phospholipid binding as a new mechanism for protein localisation to the outer membrane division site.
    1. Evolutionary Biology
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Asynchrony between virus diversity and antibody selection limits influenza virus evolution

    Dylan H Morris et al.
    Despite the virus' error prone polymerase, influenza virus antigenic evolution is rare, even in previously immune hosts, virus replication occurs before producing new antibodies.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Structures of diverse poxin cGAMP nucleases reveal a widespread role for cGAS-STING evasion in host–pathogen conflict

    James B Eaglesham et al.
    Poxin enzymes are a diverse family of insect and viral 2′3′-cGAMP nucleases, which evolved from self-cleaving RNA virus accessory proteases.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Molecular basis for substrate specificity of the Phactr1/PP1 phosphatase holoenzyme

    Roman O Fedoryshchak et al.
    Interaction of cofactor Phactr1 with PP1 creates a composite substrate-binding surface that defines the sequence specificity of the Phactr1/PP1 holoenzyme.
    1. Neuroscience

    Antinociceptive modulation by the adhesion GPCR CIRL promotes mechanosensory signal discrimination

    Sven Dannhäuser et al.
    An interdisciplinary approach uncovers a new antinociceptive molecular mechanism and shows that the adhesion GPCR CIRL adjusts the sensation of gentle touch and noxious mechanical insult in opposite directions.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Cell Biology

    Optogenetic activation of heterotrimeric G-proteins by LOV2GIVe, a rationally engineered modular protein

    Mikel Garcia-Marcos et al.
    LOV2GIVe allows to activate Gi proteins non-invasively with innocuous blue light based on a design principle unrelated to light-activated GPCRs (metazoan opsins), thereby expanding the range of potential experimental applications.