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    1. Neuroscience

    Rules and mechanisms for efficient two-stage learning in neural circuits

    Tiberiu Teşileanu et al.
    Teaching signals from "tutor" brain areas should be adapted to the plasticity mechanisms in "student" areas to achieve efficient learning in two-stage systems such as the vocal control circuit of the songbird.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics
    2. Neuroscience

    Fundamental constraints in synchronous muscle limit superfast motor control in vertebrates

    Andrew F Mead et al.
    Vertebrate superfast muscles employ similar excitation–contraction strategies but distinct myosin heavy chain genes to allow superfast performance, revealing a maximum speed that cannot be overcome without sacrificing neural control.
    1. Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine

    Mammalian genes induce partially reprogrammed pluripotent stem cells in non-mammalian vertebrate and invertebrate species

    Ricardo Antonio Rosselló et al.
    Cells from vertebrate and invertebrate model systems can be reprogrammed into stem-like cells using mouse genes.
    1. Neuroscience

    A subcortical circuit linking the cerebellum to the basal ganglia engaged in vocal learning

    Ludivine Pidoux et al.
    The cerebellum sends a functional input to the song-related basal ganglia via the thalamus in songbirds that can modify premotor activity, and it participates to song learning in juvenile birds.
    1. Neuroscience

    Flexible motor sequence generation during stereotyped escape responses

    Yuan Wang et al.
    Time-ordered and flexible motor sequences in C.elegans are generated by combining an excitatory feedforward coupling and mutual inhibitions between neurons in different functional modules.
    1. Neuroscience

    Transitioning between preparatory and precisely sequenced neuronal activity in production of a skilled behavior

    Vamsi K Daliparthi et al.
    Precisely sequenced patterns of neuronal activity associated with the production of a skilled behavior begin and end as part of orchestrated activity across functionally diverse populations of cortical premotor neurons.
    1. Epidemiology and Global Health
    2. Medicine

    Effective control of SARS-CoV-2 transmission between healthcare workers during a period of diminished community prevalence of COVID-19

    Nick K Jones et al.
    Diminished incidence of COVID-19 amongst healthcare workers in a comprehensive screening programme demonstrates how effective infection control measures and staff testing can prevent hospitals becoming independent 'hubs' of SARS-CoV-2 transmission.
    1. Epidemiology and Global Health
    2. Medicine

    Screening of healthcare workers for SARS-CoV-2 highlights the role of asymptomatic carriage in COVID-19 transmission

    Lucy Rivett et al.
    3% of >1,000 asymptomatic healthcare workers in their workplace tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, suggesting that comprehensive screening programmes are vital to prevent acquisition of COVID-19 in hospitals.
    1. Ecology
    2. Neuroscience

    Communication: Listening in

    Erich D Jarvis
    Insight
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    1. Neuroscience

    Auditory synapses to song premotor neurons are gated off during vocalization in zebra finches

    Kosuke Hamaguchi et al.
    Intracellular recordings in singing birds and images of synapses in deafened birds provide insights into the neural circuitry that enables songbirds to fine-tune their songs.