6,302 results found
    1. Neuroscience

    Mushroom body output neurons encode valence and guide memory-based action selection in Drosophila

    Yoshinori Aso et al.
    Output neurons in the mushroom body of the fruit fly brain encode the positive or negative survival value of stimuli, enabling insects to choose adaptive approach and avoidance behaviors through associative learning.
    1. Neuroscience

    The comprehensive connectome of a neural substrate for ‘ON’ motion detection in Drosophila

    Shin-ya Takemura et al.
    Connectomic analysis identifies the complex circuits of a visual motion-sensing neuron that qualify them to generate direction-selective motion sensing signals using both Hassenstein-Reichardt and Barlow-Levick models.
    1. Neuroscience

    A suppression hierarchy among competing motor programs drives sequential grooming in Drosophila

    Andrew M Seeds et al.
    Gaining genetic control over neural modules that drive the grooming of each Drosophila body part reveals how mechanisms for selecting among competing behavioral choices are used to generate sequences of actions.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Reconstruction of genetically identified neurons imaged by serial-section electron microscopy

    Maximilian Joesch et al.
    A new pipeline of electron microscopy techniques reduces the time required to visualize genetically targeted neurons and their connections by two orders of magnitude.
    1. Neuroscience

    Sequential selection of economic good and action in medial frontal cortex of macaques during value-based decisions

    Xiaomo Chen, Veit Stuphorn
    Whenever monkeys are required to choose between multiple options, neural responses indicate that they first select the desired outcome and then use this information to guide their actions.
    1. Neuroscience

    Capillary pericytes express α-smooth muscle actin, which requires prevention of filamentous-actin depolymerization for detection

    Luis Alarcon-Martinez et al.
    Pericytes surrounding capillaries in the retina contain α-smooth muscle actin, demonstrating that pericytes have the necessary molecular machinery to change capillary diameter during neurovascular coupling.
    1. Neuroscience

    Motor selection dynamics in FEF explain the reaction time variance of saccades to single targets

    Christopher K Hauser et al.
    Oculomotor circuits are always busy planning the next eye movement, and this explains why, when a visual target appears, some eye movements toward it are produced very quickly whereas others take a long time to prepare.
    1. Neuroscience

    An excitatory amacrine cell detects object motion and provides feature-selective input to ganglion cells in the mouse retina

    Tahnbee Kim et al.
    The mouse visual system is able to detect small moving objects due to the activity of VG3-amacrine cells, an unusual type of modulatory cell that uses the transmitter glutamate to activate retinal output cells.
    1. Cancer Biology

    Rejection of immunogenic tumor clones is limited by clonal fraction

    Ron S Gejman et al.
    A new, high-throughput in vivo MHC-I peptide minigene library platform shows that the naive immune system cannot eliminate cells presenting immunogenic antigens found at low frequencies within a growing tumor.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Anaerobic Bacteria: Solving a shuttle mystery

    Bridget Conley, Jeffrey Gralnick
    Shewanella oneidensis bacteria use an abiotic reaction to help shuttle electrons outside of the cell.
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