Output neurons in the mushroom body of the fruit fly brain encode the positive or negative survival value of stimuli, enabling insects to choose adaptive approach and avoidance behaviors through associative learning.
Connectomic analysis identifies the complex circuits of a visual motion-sensing neuron that qualify them to generate direction-selective motion sensing signals using both Hassenstein-Reichardt and Barlow-Levick models.
Gaining genetic control over neural modules that drive the grooming of each Drosophila body part reveals how mechanisms for selecting among competing behavioral choices are used to generate sequences of actions.
Pericytes surrounding capillaries in the retina contain α-smooth muscle actin, demonstrating that pericytes have the necessary molecular machinery to change capillary diameter during neurovascular coupling.
Oculomotor circuits are always busy planning the next eye movement, and this explains why, when a visual target appears, some eye movements toward it are produced very quickly whereas others take a long time to prepare.
The mouse visual system is able to detect small moving objects due to the activity of VG3-amacrine cells, an unusual type of modulatory cell that uses the transmitter glutamate to activate retinal output cells.
A new, high-throughput in vivo MHC-I peptide minigene library platform shows that the naive immune system cannot eliminate cells presenting immunogenic antigens found at low frequencies within a growing tumor.