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    1. Neuroscience

    Ultrafast endocytosis at Caenorhabditis elegans neuromuscular junctions

    Shigeki Watanabe et al.
    Optogenetics has revealed that synaptic vesicles can be recycled extremely rapidly in nematodes, indicating that existing models for how synapses 'reload' may need to be revised.
    1. Human Biology and Medicine
    2. Neuroscience

    Non-selective inhibition of inappropriate motor-tendencies during response-conflict by a fronto-subthalamic mechanism

    Jan R Wessel et al.
    Action-selection under response-conflict is buttressed by an inhibitory control signal from the basal ganglia that non-selectively suppresses motor excitability.
    1. Cell Biology

    Actin assembly ruptures the nuclear envelope by prying the lamina away from nuclear pores and nuclear membranes in starfish oocytes

    Natalia Wesolowska et al.
    Combined light and electron microscopy reveals a new function for Arp2/3-mediated actin assembly in nuclear envelope rupture, which leads to a separation of nuclear membranes and pores from the lamina.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics
    2. Cell Biology

    9Å structure of the COPI coat reveals that the Arf1 GTPase occupies two contrasting molecular environments

    Svetlana O Dodonova et al.
    A molecular model of the assembled COPI coat, determined by cryo-electron tomography of an in vitro reconstituted budding reaction, reveals details of interactions mediating coat assembly and shows the binding site of ArfGAP2.
    1. Neuroscience

    Formation of retinal direction-selective circuitry initiated by starburst amacrine cell homotypic contact

    Thomas A Ray et al.
    Selective synapse formation in a retinal motion-sensitive circuit is orchestrated by starburst amacrine cells, which use homotypic interactions to initiate formation of a dendritic scaffold that recruits projections from circuit partners.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Structural basis of interprotein electron transfer in bacterial sulfite oxidation

    Aaron P McGrath et al.
    A structural and functional analysis of the electron transfer complex between a sulfite oxidase and its redox protein partner reveals an elegant compromise between the requirements for fast and efficient electron transfer and reaction specificity.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Conserved mechanisms of microtubule-stimulated ADP release, ATP binding, and force generation in transport kinesins

    Joseph Atherton et al.
    Cryo-electron microscopy reconstructions of two microtubule-bound transport kinesins at 7 Å resolution reveal how microtubule track binding stimulates ADP release, primes the active site for ATP binding and enables force generation.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Crystal structures of virus-like photosystem I complexes from the mesophilic cyanobacterium Synechocystis PCC 6803

    Yuval Mazor et al.
    The structure of the photosystem I (PSI) complex from Synechocystis is determined, and reaction center subunits engineered to resemble a viral PSI are found to promote promiscuous electron acceptor properties.
    1. Neuroscience

    The functional organization of excitation and inhibition in the dendrites of mouse direction-selective ganglion cells

    Varsha Jain et al.
    Accurate direction-selective information is present within small sections of the dendrites, raising the possibility that single dendrites utilize parallel processing schemes to process motion information.
    1. Evolutionary Biology
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    Polygenic adaptation on height is overestimated due to uncorrected stratification in genome-wide association studies

    Mashaal Sohail et al.
    Polygenic selection signals in humans estimated from previously existing GWAS should be viewed with caution due to concerns about residual population stratification.