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    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    A cholinergic feedback circuit to regulate striatal population uncertainty and optimize reinforcement learning

    Nicholas T Franklin, Michael J Frank
    Computational modeling suggests that feedback between striatal cholinergic neurons and spiny neurons dynamically adjusts learning rates to optimize behavior in a variable world.
    1. Neuroscience

    An excitatory lateral hypothalamic circuit orchestrating pain behaviors in mice

    Justin N Siemian et al.
    A small population of lateral hypothalamic neurons detects pain and can be activated to suppress pain-related behavioral adaptations and the unpleasantness associated with pain in mice.
    1. Neuroscience

    Developmental change in prefrontal cortex recruitment supports the emergence of value-guided memory

    Kate Nussenbaum, Catherine A Hartley
    The use of prior experience to adaptively prioritize information in memory increases from childhood to adulthood and engages corticostriatal circuitry.
    1. Neuroscience

    Control of adaptive action selection by secondary motor cortex during flexible visual categorization

    Tian-Yi Wang et al.
    The secondary motor cortex causally contributes to flexible action selection during stimulus categorization with the representations of upcoming choice and sensory history regulated by the demand to remap stimulus–action association.
    1. Neuroscience

    Ongoing, rational calibration of reward-driven perceptual biases

    Yunshu Fan et al.
    The rational application of heuristic learning strategies and satisficing goals accounted for near-optimal decisions that combined reward and noisy visual information by well-trained monkeys.
    1. Neuroscience

    Critical role for the mediodorsal thalamus in permitting rapid reward-guided updating in stochastic reward environments

    Subhojit Chakraborty et al.
    In monkeys, the integrity of the magnocellular subdivision of mediodorsal thalamus is important when using recent rewarded choices to promote persistence with a recently sampled choice during changing or uncertain reward guided-learning and decision-making tasks.
    1. Neuroscience

    Homeostatic reinforcement learning for integrating reward collection and physiological stability

    Mehdi Keramati, Boris Gutkin
    A mathematical model built around the assumption that the desire to maintain internal homeostasis drives the behavior of animals, by affecting their learning processes, can explain many real-world behaviors, including some that might otherwise appear irrational.
    1. Ecology
    2. Epidemiology and Global Health

    Personality links with lifespan in chimpanzees

    Drew M Altschul et al.
    Among captive chimpanzees, higher agreeableness males and higher openness females survive longer.
    1. Neuroscience

    Maintained avalanche dynamics during task-induced changes of neuronal activity in nonhuman primates

    Shan Yu et al.
    Ongoing and stimulus-evoked brain activity in cortex are shown in nonhuman primates to follow the organization of neuronal avalanches, a core commonality that might guide optimal information processing in the brain.
    1. Developmental Biology

    Enhancer additivity and non-additivity are determined by enhancer strength in the Drosophila embryo

    Jacques P Bothma et al.
    Quantitative live imaging assays reveal that multiple enhancers often fail to work in an additive fashion in the patterning of the Drosophila embryo, and sometimes even interfere with one another.