314 results found
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    A molecular portrait of maternal sepsis from Byzantine Troy

    Alison M Devault et al.
    Mineralized placental tissue from Late Byzantine Troy enables the detailed reconstruction of genomes of mixed bacterial species responsible for maternal sepsis in the ancient world.
    1. Genetics and Genomics
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Neolithic and medieval virus genomes reveal complex evolution of hepatitis B

    Ben Krause-Kyora et al.
    Ancient hepatitis B virus (HBV) genomes were reconstructed from up to 7000-year-old Stone Age human skeletons, suggesting a long-time complex co-evolution with human populations.
    1. Epidemiology and Global Health
    2. Evolutionary Biology

    A transmission-virulence evolutionary trade-off explains attenuation of HIV-1 in Uganda

    François Blanquart et al.
    Analysis of epidemiological data reveals that viral loads in newly HIV-1 infected individuals in Uganda have declined for two decades, and evolutionary modelling shows that attenuation of the virus explains this decline.
    1. Evolutionary Biology
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    Long-term balancing selection drives evolution of immunity genes in Capsella

    Daniel Koenig et al.
    Retention of genetic diversity at immune-related loci drives the pattern of genetic variation in selfing Capsella.
    1. Epidemiology and Global Health
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Eighteenth century Yersinia pestis genomes reveal the long-term persistence of an historical plague focus

    Kirsten I Bos et al.
    The analysis of 18th century Y. pestis genomes reveals a bacterial lineage that might be responsible for the 400-year period of European plague epidemics from the Renaissance through early modern times.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Dynamic post-translational modification profiling of Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected primary macrophages

    Jonathan M Budzik et al.
    Measurement of post-translational modifications in primary macrophages infected with Mtb revealed phosphorylation of TAX1BP1, an autophagy receptor that enables full maturation of the Mtb autophagosome.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    A deletion polymorphism in the Caenorhabditis elegans RIG-I homolog disables viral RNA dicing and antiviral immunity

    Alyson Ashe et al.
    Evidence that C. elegans and mammals use homologous versions of the same protein (RIG-1) to activate antiviral defense mechanisms suggests that RIG-1 may have a conserved role in coupling virus recognition to virus destruction.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Evolutionary Biology

    Domestic chickens activate a piRNA defense against avian leukosis virus

    Yu Huining Sun et al.
    To protect the germ line genome, chickens acquire new small RNA-based immune defense in response to recently endogenized retroviruses by turning a truncated provirus into a weapon.
    1. Genetics and Genomics
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Population genomics reveals the origin and asexual evolution of human infective trypanosomes

    William Weir et al.
    The protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei gambiense has undergone recent clonal evolution that reveals the theoretically predicted Meselson effect at a genome-wide level.
    1. Epidemiology and Global Health

    The Anopheles gambiae 2La chromosome inversion is associated with susceptibility to Plasmodium falciparum in Africa

    Michelle M Riehle et al.
    A common chromosome inversion in African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae) is associated with differences in malaria infection, adult resting behavior and ecology, and may aid the most efficient vectors to evade malaria control.

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