Alpha EEG oscillations emerge at 4 months of age during sevoflurane general anesthesia, and unlike in adults, have a widespread spatial distribution that likely reflects differences in brain development.
Instant performance recovery is possible following general anesthesia-induced unconsciousness using antagonist, and the brain dynamics return abruptly to the awake state without intermediate recovery states.
Cognitive reconstitution after pharmacologic unconsciousness is an extended process, executive function is more robust than expected, and the healthy human brain is resilient to the effects of deep general anesthesia.
Intracranial recordings of human brain activity during awakening from general anesthesia exhibit a brief brain state not seen during loss of consciousness, in which stimuli elicit large electrophysiological responses that resemble those seen in sleep.
Responses to anesthetics differ among individuals and fluctuate stochastically despite constant drug concentration, however, the amount of noise driving transitions between the responsive and the unresponsive state is conserved.