A data-driven within-host model reveals that different antibiotics are associated with divergent effects on antibiotic resistance carriage and abundance in hospitalised patients, with important implications for antibiotic stewardship.
Killing their neighbors allows bacteria to steal genes, including antibiotic resistance genes, which we observed under a microscope, quantified, modeled, and predicted potentially guiding strategies to combat it.
Mutations in several components of a bacterial ribosome are shown to broadly decrease antibiotic and stress sensitivity, and readily accessible reversion mutations allow these ribosomal mutations to serve as stepping stones to high level antibiotic resistance.
Population-level antibiotic resistance correlates with the breadth of antibiotic use, that is, the proportion of people taking an antibiotic, better than with intensity of use the amount of use among users.
Both within and between hosts, the key factor guiding whether increasing treatment strength will increase or decrease antibiotic resistance is whether inter-strain competition is effective, not whether it is present.