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    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Mechanisms of ribosome stalling by SecM at multiple elongation steps

    Jun Zhang et al.
    Nascent regulatory peptides tune the translation rate through a continuous, dynamic reshaping of the functional center of the ribosome.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Structures of the scanning and engaged states of the mammalian SRP-ribosome complex

    Rebecca M Voorhees, Ramanujan S Hegde
    Structures of the signal recognition particle before and after it captures a transmembrane domain suggest how it chooses, engages, and shields its clients during membrane protein targeting to the endoplasmic reticulum.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Ciliate mitoribosome illuminates evolutionary steps of mitochondrial translation

    Victor Tobiasson, Alexey Amunts
    The ciliate mitoribosome structure provides new insights into the diversity of translation and its evolution.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology

    Ribozyme-catalysed RNA synthesis using triplet building blocks

    James Attwater et al.
    Adopting RNA trinucleotides as substrates, ribozymes can catalyse the copying of structured RNA sequences, allowing self-synthesis by part of a newly evolved symbiotic ribozyme pair.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology

    Inferring joint sequence-structural determinants of protein functional specificity

    Andrew F Neuwald et al.
    A statistical approach for predicting non-active site residues responsible for allostery, cooperativity, or other subtle but functionally important interactions is described and applied to various protein families.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Cryo-EM structure of a late pre-40S ribosomal subunit from Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    André Heuer et al.
    Near atomic resolution of late 40S ribosomal subunit assembly by cryo-EM reveals immature rRNA active sites stabilized by biogenesis factors.
    1. Genetics and Genomics

    Recombination, meiotic expression and human codon usage

    Fanny Pouyet et al.
    Variation in codon usage among functional categories of human genes is not due to selection for translation efficiency, but to differences in intragenic recombination rate, linked to variation in meiotic transcription level.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Chromosomes and Gene Expression

    Fail-safe control of translation initiation by dissociation of eIF2α phosphorylated ternary complexes

    Martin D Jennings et al.
    Phosphorylated translation initiation factor eIF2, a potent inhibitor of protein synthesis in eukaryotic cells, is also inhibitory to protein synthesis when bound to GTP and initiator tRNA broadening the reach and immediacy of eIF2-mediated control.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology

    A dynamic RNA loop in an IRES affects multiple steps of elongation factor-mediated translation initiation

    Marisa D Ruehle et al.
    During initiation factor-independent RNA structure-driven translation initiation, a flexible RNA element drives the movement of a viral IRES through the ribosome's tRNA binding sites and promotes tRNA binding.
    1. Genetics and Genomics
    2. Cancer Biology

    Origins and functional consequences of somatic mitochondrial DNA mutations in human cancer

    Young Seok Ju et al.
    Identifying 1,907 mitochondrial somatic mutations from 1,675 tumor tissues provides new insights into the causes and effects of the mitochondrial genome mutations found in human cancers.