While antimicrobial cocktails are highly effective for defence against pathogenic microbes, the innate immune response may instead employ highly specific peptidic antibiotics to combat certain natural enemies.
The major evolutionary routes to drug resistance in Salmonella Typhi are associated with fitness benefits, not fitness costs, implying that prudent antimicrobial use will have no effect as a public health intervention in controlling typhoid fever.
To protect their food and themselves against detrimental mould fungi, the eggs of a wasp species synthesize and emit remarkable amounts of gaseous nitrogen oxides that are highly effective antimicrobials.
In the ancestor of mammals, a multifunctional innate immune protein evolved when a mutation enhanced the protein’s pro-inflammatory activity and proteolytic regulation without disrupting the protein’s antimicrobial activity.
The widespread occurrence of metabolically active streptomycetes in Odontotaenius disjunctus beetle frass may insulate their galleries against pathogenic fungal invasion through the production of diverse antimicrobial specialized metabolites.