While antimicrobial cocktails are highly effective for defence against pathogenic microbes, the innate immune response may instead employ highly specific peptidic antibiotics to combat certain natural enemies.
The major evolutionary routes to drug resistance in Salmonella Typhi are associated with fitness benefits, not fitness costs, implying that prudent antimicrobial use will have no effect as a public health intervention in controlling typhoid fever.
Interventions in feedlots and abattoirs place selective pressure on the beef cattle resistome, which differentially impacts the public health risk of antimicrobial resistance from beef production sources.
To protect their food and themselves against detrimental mould fungi, the eggs of a wasp species synthesize and emit remarkable amounts of gaseous nitrogen oxides that are highly effective antimicrobials.
HIV co-infection does not affect Mycobacterium tuberculosis mutation rates and does not drive the emergence of antimicrobial resistance within patients in the largest outbreak of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Latin America to date.