Pronounced cerebellar activation during unexpected omission of a potentially harmful event suggests that the cerebellum has to be added to the neural network processing prediction errors underlying emotional associative learning.
Odor conditioning induces two changes in olfactory neurons: non-associative sensory adaptation to odor history, and associative, bidirectional changes in behavioral output that are oppositely regulated in aversive and appetitive learning.
Perceived imminence of threat and resulting intensity of defensive responses during serial compound stimulus conditioning are determined by auditory stimulus salience, not cue sequence as recently reported.
Neurons in the lateral habenula are activated by pain, bitterness and social defeat, and their responses are dynamically shaped by learning, suggesting a role in experience-dependent selection of behavioral actions to stressors.
While the striatum and orbitofrontal cortex learn about threats through verbal warnings, the amygdala learns only from direct experience, suggesting that the amygdala forms part of a specialized threat detection system.