Measures of visuocortical activity during aversive generalization learning revealed sharpened representations of facial identity, reflecting inhibitory interactions between neuronal populations that represent facial features associated with threat versus safety.
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor type A in adult Drosophila inhibits Kenyon cells, and is required for aversive olfactory learning and learning-associated synaptic depression between Kenyon cells and their output neurons.
While the striatum and orbitofrontal cortex learn about threats through verbal warnings, the amygdala learns only from direct experience, suggesting that the amygdala forms part of a specialized threat detection system.
Neurons in the lateral habenula are activated by pain, bitterness and social defeat, and their responses are dynamically shaped by learning, suggesting a role in experience-dependent selection of behavioral actions to stressors.
Behavioral assays using Caenorhabditis elegans show that a learned pathogen avoidance following intestinal distention requires specific chemosensory neurons and TRPM channels in the intestine and excretory cell.