Stunning new scan data of an enigmatic fish from the Early Devonian of Australia, Ligulalepis, is identified as a stem osteichthyan, specifically, as the sister taxon to the 'psarolepids' plus crown osteichthyans.
Drosophila clock neurons manifest remarkable heterogeneity, which might be generally true and help explain why Drosophila has a sophisticated behavioral repertoire despite a tiny brain of about 100,000 neurons.
White matter connectivity assessed using diffusion MRI allows one to compare whole-brain organization between different animal species in a quantitative fashion, identifying homologous areas and regions of unique specialization.
The substrate for evolutionary divergence does not lie in changes in neuronal cell number or targeting, but rather in sensory perception and synaptic partner choice within invariant, prepatterned neuronal processes.
Purkinje cells feature molecular heterogeneity that introduces differentiation in physiological properties between zebrin-identified cerebellar modules and thereby underlies the differential control on sensorimotor integration.