Gene manipulation combined with behavior analysis reveals a role of miR-9 in modulating basal-ganglia-dependent developmental vocal learning and adult vocal performance via regulating the FOXP1/FOXP2 gene network and dopamine signaling in songbirds.
The effects of chloride homeostasis can explain diverse responses of basal ganglia output neurons to putatively inhibitory inputs and may tune these neurons' synchrony, oscillations and behavior in decision-making scenarios.
Cryo-EM structure of monomeric human Frizzled5 was determined with a universal fiducial antibody at 3.7 Å overall resolution, which supports a simple Fzd/LRP6 heterodimerization mechanism of canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling.
The biophysical diversity that is intrinsic to spiral ganglion neurons emerges as spatial gradients during early post-natal development and endures through subsequent maturation to likely contribute to sound intensity coding.
When coupling between STN spikes and cortical gamma oscillations was strong, subsequent movement was initiated earlier, independent of changes in mean firing rates, demonstrating the importance of relative spike timing.