Bats' uniquely robust innate antiviral immune defenses select for faster transmitting viruses likely to generate extreme virulence upon spillover to secondary hosts with immune systems divergent from those of bat.
Parallel losses of short-wave light sensitivity in diverse bats occurred through independent changes at multiple steps in the conversion of genotype into functional phenotype, including pre-, during, and post-transcription.
Some species of bats hunt for insects that are resting on surfaces by detecting interruptions in the echoes from that surface, suggesting that resting on rough surfaces may help insects to evade detection by echolocation.
Neurons in the midbrain superior colliculus of free-flying echolocating bats represent 3D sensory space, and the depth tuning of single neurons is modulated by an animal's active sonar inspection of physical objects in its environment.
In a drug choice setting, rats’ preference is initially driven by deliberative processes but shifts to more automatic selection processes after extended training, in accordance with the sequential choice model.