Quantifiable bioenergetic parameters, determined from extracellular flux analyses, are distinct between macrophages infected with Mycobacteriumtuberculosis or vaccine strain M. bovis BCG, enabling assessment of future vaccine and drug efficacy.
Individual cells display heterogeneous fluctuations in metabolic activity, with amplitude and kinetics controlled by interlocking feedbacks between glycolysis and the Insulin/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.
ATP enters the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) lumen through an SLC35B1/AXER-dependentCaATiER mechanism, and ATP usage in the ER renders 'anti-Warburg' effect by increasing ATP regeneration from OxPhos while decreasing glycolysis.
Novel transgenic zebrafish lines allow selective ablation of neuronal mitochondria by far red light, providing a powerful tool for investigating mitochondrial homeostasis in neurons and mitochondrial mechanisms in neurological disease.
In neuronal mitophagy, Parkin and OPTN induce efficient sequestration of damaged somal mitochondria into autophagosomes, but slow turnover via lysosomal acidification may be a point of vulnerability for the cell.