The amino acids that are necessary for phospholipid scrambling by ANO6/TMEM16F can, via domain swapping, confer scrambling activity to the chloride ion channel ANO1 that normally does not scramble phospholipids.
Mathematical models with experimental validation show that chloride transporters in the cell membrane, and not negatively charged impermeant molecules, generate the driving force used by GABA receptors to silence neurons.
Supporting cells in the cochlea change their shape in response to purinergic receptor activation, which influences hair cell excitability by altering potassium redistribution in the extracellular space.
The activin receptor ALK7 regulates the adaptation of brown adipose tissue to nutrient availability by preventing over-activation of signaling pathways induced by fasting, allowing appropriate response to cold exposure.
Parasitic helminths infect over a billion humans and use unusual anaerobic metabolism that needs a rare electron carrier, Rhodoquinone (RQ), whose synthesis requires the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan degradation.
β-adrenergic receptors at the Golgi apparatus activate a local signaling pathway, not accessed by cell surface receptors, to drive cardiac hypertrophy and could represent a target for heart failure therapy.
A hub in the rostral anterior cingulate cortex receives unusually high and functionally diverse inputs, providing a biological interface between motivation, incentive based learning, and decision making.