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    1. Immunology and Inflammation

    Modulation of let-7 miRNAs controls the differentiation of effector CD8 T cells

    Alexandria C Wells et al.
    TCR-mediated downregulation of let-7 microRNAs licenses the differentiation of activated CD8 T cells into cytotoxic T lymphocytes.
    1. Immunology and Inflammation
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    An extrafollicular pathway for the generation of effector CD8+ T cells driven by the proinflammatory cytokine, IL-12

    Suhagi Shah et al.
    Proliferation and differentiation of CD8+ T cells into terminal effectors occurs in the marginal zone and red pulp, and is promoted by IL-12 through direct and indirect mechanisms.
    1. Immunology and Inflammation

    The transcription factors Runx3 and ThPOK cross-regulate acquisition of cytotoxic function by human Th1 lymphocytes

    Yasmina Serroukh et al.
    The acquisition of cytotoxic function by human CD4 T cells is an integral part of the T helper 1 differentiation pathway and is limited by the transcription factor ThPOK.
    1. Immunology and Inflammation
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    The viral context instructs the redundancy of costimulatory pathways in driving CD8+ T cell expansion

    Suzanne PM Welten et al.
    Redundancy in the costimulatory signals that drive CD8+ T cell expansion is dictated by pathogen-specific cues.
    1. Immunology and Inflammation

    Autophagy is a critical regulator of memory CD8+ T cell formation

    Daniel J Puleston et al.
    Autophagy is required for CD8+ T cell memory formation; in aged individuals autophagy levels are diminished, and increasing autophagy enhances their CD8+ T cell responses.
    1. Immunology and Inflammation

    The transforming growth factor beta signaling pathway is critical for the formation of CD4 T follicular helper cells and isotype-switched antibody responses in the lung mucosa

    Heather D Marshall et al.
    Differentiation of CD4 T cells into CD4 T follicular helper cells during viral infection in mice is promoted by tumor growth factor beta.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Immunology and Inflammation

    Affinity and dose of TCR engagement yield proportional enhancer and gene activity in CD4+ T cells

    Karmel A Allison et al.
    Pre-existing enhancers interpret T cell signaling strength in an analogue manner to direct quantitative changes in gene expression within the context of an overall digital response.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Phenotypic analysis of the unstimulated in vivo HIV CD4 T cell reservoir

    Jason Neidleman et al.
    An in-depth view of the in vivo blood and tissue HIV reservoir is presented highlighting shared phenotypic features between individuals, thus enabling marked ex vivo enrichment of replication-competent latent cells.
    1. Immunology and Inflammation

    Na+ influx via Orai1 inhibits intracellular ATP-induced mTORC2 signaling to disrupt CD4 T cell gene expression and differentiation

    Yong Miao et al.
    Non-specific sodium entry inhibits T cell receptor induced gene expression and differentiation of T cells by depleting intracellular ATP and disrupting mTORC2 dependent signalling axis.
    1. Immunology and Inflammation

    Opposing effects of T cell receptor signal strength on CD4 T cells responding to acute versus chronic viral infection

    Marco Künzli et al.
    T cell receptor signal strength correlates positively with Th1 generation during acute infection but negatively during chronic infection.