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    1. Neuroscience

    Integrating prediction errors at two time scales permits rapid recalibration of speech sound categories

    Itsaso Olasagasti, Anne-Lise Giraud
    Keeping flexible adaptable representations of speech categories at different time scales allows the brain to maintain stable perception in the face of varying speech sound characteristics.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Activation of a nucleotide-dependent RCK domain requires binding of a cation cofactor to a conserved site

    Celso M Teixeira-Duarte et al.
    Cations are essential cofactors in the ATP activation mechanism of the KtrAB cation channel and appear to be cofactors of many other nucleotide-dependent RCK domains.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology

    A reverse transcriptase ribozyme

    Biswajit Samanta, Gerald F Joyce
    An RNA enzyme is shown to function as a reverse transcriptase, an activity thought to be crucial for the transition from RNA to DNA genomes during the early history of life on Earth.
    1. Neuroscience

    Shorter cortical adaptation in dyslexia is broadly distributed in the superior temporal lobe and includes the primary auditory cortex

    Sagi Jaffe-Dax et al.
    BOLD activity throughout the cortex, including auditory cortex and associative regions, reveals that adaptation is shorter in dyslexia.
    1. Neuroscience

    Coordination of rapid cholinergic and dopaminergic signaling in striatum during spontaneous movement

    Mark Howe et al.
    Optical recordings reveal previously unknown neuromodulator dynamics in the striatum during animal movements that suggest a new interpretation of the underpinnings of bradykinetic movements exhibited in Parkinson's Disease patients.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology

    Inferring joint sequence-structural determinants of protein functional specificity

    Andrew F Neuwald et al.
    A statistical approach for predicting non-active site residues responsible for allostery, cooperativity, or other subtle but functionally important interactions is described and applied to various protein families.
    1. Ecology
    2. Evolutionary Biology

    Intergenerational effects of early adversity on survival in wild baboons

    Matthew N Zipple et al.
    In wild baboons, a female's adverse early experiences can influence her offspring's survival years after the original adversity was experienced.
    1. Ecology

    Climate-mediated cooperation promotes niche expansion in burying beetles

    Syuan-Jyun Sun et al.
    Cooperation enables burying beetles to outcompete flies and adapt to a wider range of temperatures as thermal generalists.
    1. Genetics and Genomics
    2. Medicine

    A Mendelian randomization study of the role of lipoprotein subfractions in coronary artery disease

    Qingyuan Zhao et al.
    High-density lipoprotein (HDL) subfraction traits appear to have heterogeneous effects on coronary artery disease, giving support to the HDL function hypothesis.
    1. Physics of Living Systems

    Increasing evidence of mechanical force as a functional regulator in smooth muscle myosin light chain kinase

    Fabian Baumann et al.
    Atomic force microscopy based single-molecule force spectroscopy of smooth muscle myosin light chain kinase strongly indicates the existence of a mechanically triggerable activation pathway analogous to its well-established biochemical regulation pathway via calcium-loaded calmodulin.