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    1. Neuroscience

    Serial, parallel and hierarchical decision making in primates

    Ariel Zylberberg et al.
    A comparison between hierarchical and flat models of decision-making refutes flat models because they lack flexibility and are not supported by behavioral and neural data.
    1. Neuroscience

    DYT1 dystonia increases risk taking in humans

    David Arkadir et al.
    Patients with DYT1 dystonia show aberrant risk-aversion in a simple decision-making task, in accordance with predictions of a reinforcement learning model of corticostriatal trial-and-error learning.
    1. Neuroscience

    Modulation of GABA and resting state functional connectivity by transcranial direct current stimulation

    Velicia Bachtiar et al.
    Building on previous work (Stagg et al., 2014), it is shown that transcranial direct current stimulation modulates local GABA concentration and functional connectivity in the human motor cortex.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Evolutionary Biology

    A shift in anterior–posterior positional information underlies the fin-to-limb evolution

    Koh Onimaru et al.
    A shift in antero-posterior positional information may contribute to the fin-to-limb transformation.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Molecular insights into substrate recognition and discrimination by the N-terminal domain of Lon AAA+ protease

    Shiou-Ru Tzeng et al.
    The N-terminal domains enable Lon protease to discriminate and capture selected protein species for degradation by exposed hydrophobic patches and flexible linkages to the hexameric core complex.
    1. Epidemiology and Global Health
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Rapid feedback on hospital onset SARS-CoV-2 infections combining epidemiological and sequencing data

    Oliver Stirrup et al.
    Epidemiological and viral sequence data can be combined to provide standardised feedback on cases of hospital onset COVID-19 infection that would be useful for infection prevention and control.
    1. Neuroscience
    2. Physics of Living Systems

    Bulk flow of cerebrospinal fluid observed in periarterial spaces is not an artifact of injection

    Aditya Raghunandan et al.
    A new tracer infusion method is used to confirm that pulsatile cerebrospinal fluid transport into the brain occurs naturally and is driven by the cardiac cycle, not by tracer injection.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Nonlinearities between inhibition and T-type calcium channel activity bidirectionally regulate thalamic oscillations

    Adam C Lu et al.
    A multi-scale integration of experimental and computational approaches shows how a non-linear dependence of T-type calcium channel gating on GABAB receptor activity regulates thalamic network oscillations.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Dopamine role in learning and action inference

    Rafal Bogacz
    A mathematical model describes the function of dopaminergic neurons in both learning and action planning.
    1. Neuroscience
    2. Physics of Living Systems

    Tuning of feedforward control enables stable muscle force-length dynamics after loss of autogenic proprioceptive feedback

    Joanne C Gordon et al.
    Running guinea fowl maintain stable running after loss of the stretch reflex in a major ankle extensor muscle, by increasing feedforward muscle activation to maintain ankle stiffness and work output.