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    1. Medicine
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    HIV-1 DNA predicts disease progression and post-treatment virological control

    James P Williams et al.
    Measuring HIV-1 DNA levels at the time of stopping antiretroviral therapy (when initiated during primary infection) predicts clinical progression and the time taken for plasma viraemia to become detectable.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Differences across cyclophilin A orthologs contribute to the host range restriction of hepatitis C virus

    Jenna M Gaska et al.
    Incompatibilities between the viral replication machinery and orthologs of the essential host factor cyclophilin A (CypA) contribute to the narrow host range of hepatitis C virus.
    1. Immunology and Inflammation

    Bystander hyperactivation of preimmune CD8+ T cells in chronic HCV patients

    Cécile Alanio et al.
    Naïve CD8+ T cells are dysregulated during chronic hepatitis C (HCV) infection, and this is reversible after viral clearance.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Active invasion of bacteria into living fungal cells

    Nadine Moebius et al.
    Bacteria invade living fungal cells using secreted chitinolytic enzymes that allow for a traceless entry, as shown by microscopic snapshots.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Drivers and sites of diversity in the DNA adenine methylomes of 93 Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex clinical isolates

    Samuel J Modlin et al.
    Fully assembled DNA methylomes from phylogeographically diverse clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates reveals 'intercellular mosaic methylation' as a source of epigenetic diversity.
    1. Cell Biology

    Single-cell dynamics of pannexin-1-facilitated programmed ATP loss during apoptosis

    Hiromi Imamura et al.
    Cleavage of pannexin-1 channel by caspases facilitates the loss of intracellular ATP level and attenuates glycolytic metabolism of apoptotic cells.
    1. Cell Biology

    Functional exploration of heterotrimeric kinesin-II in IFT and ciliary length control in Chlamydomonas

    Shufen Li et al.
    Experimental and modelling analyses suggest a non-linear scaling relationship between IFT velocity and ciliary length that can be accounted for by limitation of the motors.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Immunology and Inflammation

    Anti-ferroptotic mechanism of IL4i1-mediated amino acid metabolism

    Leonie Zeitler et al.
    IL4i1 is an amino acid oxidase expressed in the mammalian immune system and snake venoms, which control diametrically opposite cell protection versus cell death pathways, respectively.
    1. Genetics and Genomics
    2. Neuroscience

    A simple and effective F0 knockout method for rapid screening of behaviour and other complex phenotypes

    François Kroll et al.
    Zebrafish knockouts can be generated in a few hours directly from wild-type eggs and are suitable for studying continuous traits, including behaviour.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Vibrio deploys type 2 secreted lipase to esterify cholesterol with host fatty acids and mediate cell egress

    Suneeta Chimalapati et al.
    Considering the course of a pathogen's evolution, there appears to be interplay between secretion systems, providing unique, synergistic mechanisms to support a successful lifestyle for possibly pathogenesis, symbiosis and/or parasitosis.