Transcription factors that specify the identity of individual neuron types via activating terminal differentiation gene batteries also restrict cellular plasticity via altering the chromatin landscape.
Novel spatial representations by hippocampal cellular assemblies develop on the framework of preconfigured hippocampal networks whose homeostatic synaptic reorganization is accelerated by prior experience and CA3 NMDAR-dependent plasticity.
During learning, one climbing fiber input instructs plasticity that is expressed in the simple-spike responses of cerebellar Purkinje cells, and causes neural learning that may inhibit future climbing fiber instructions.
Synaptic defects previously attributed to loss of kinesin function are found to be mediated by the Wnd/DLK axonal injury signaling pathway, which restrains the total levels of presynaptic proteins in response to their accumulation.
Output neurons in the mushroom body of the fruit fly brain encode the positive or negative survival value of stimuli, enabling insects to choose adaptive approach and avoidance behaviors through associative learning.