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    1. Neuroscience

    Optical control of ERK and AKT signaling promotes axon regeneration and functional recovery of PNS and CNS in Drosophila

    Qin Wang et al.
    Precise spatiotemporal optogenetic activation of ERK and AKT signaling pathways reveals neural repair mechanisms of the peripheral and central nervous systems in live Drosophila larvae.
    1. Immunology and Inflammation
    2. Neuroscience

    Peripherally administered orexin improves survival of mice with endotoxin shock

    Yasuhiro Ogawa et al.
    When the neuropeptide orexin is peripherally administered in mice with septic shock, it penetrates the blood-brain barrier and acts in the brain to improve survival through multiple autonomic and neuroendocrine pathways.
    1. Neuroscience

    Vocal development in a Waddington landscape

    Yayoi Teramoto et al.
    An integrated landscape framework shows how the coordinated changes in vocal apparatus, muscles, nervous system, and social interaction together influence the trajectory of vocal development.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    MicroRNAs mediate precise control of spinal interneuron populations to exert delicate sensory-to-motor outputs

    Shih-Hsin Chang et al.
    The miR-34/449 family is abundantly expressed in the central nervous system, and fine-tunes optimal numbers of spinal interneurons to ensure sensory-motor circuit outputs.
    1. Immunology and Inflammation
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Virus infection of the CNS disrupts the immune-neural-synaptic axis via induction of pleiotropic gene regulation of host responses

    Olga A Maximova et al.
    Virus infection of the central nervous system disrupts the homeostasis of the immune-neural-synaptic axis via induction of pleiotropic genes with an unintended off-target negative impact on the neurotransmission.
    1. Medicine
    2. Neuroscience

    Deciphering the neural signature of human cardiovascular regulation

    Jorge Manuel et al.
    At least three hypothalamic subsystems are involved in cardiovascular regulation in humans.
    1. Neuroscience

    A double-sided microscope to realize whole-ganglion imaging of membrane potential in the medicinal leech

    Yusuke Tomina, Daniel A Wagenaar
    For the first time, action potentials and subthreshold postsynaptic potentials of almost all individual identifiable neurons within a functional unit of the leech nervous system were simultaneously imaged during sensory processing and behavioral generation.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    A novel central nervous system-penetrating protease inhibitor overcomes human immunodeficiency virus 1 resistance with unprecedented aM to pM potency

    Manabu Aoki et al.
    GRL-142 is an HIV protease inhibitor with a unique structure and atto-to-picomolar potency against a wide range of HIV strains.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression
    2. Neuroscience

    Satb2 determines miRNA expression and long-term memory in the adult central nervous system

    Clemens Jaitner et al.
    The genome-organizer Satb2 has a key role in memory formation by modulating availability of miRNAs that control the function of synapses.
    1. Cell Biology

    Akt1-Inhibitor of DNA binding2 is essential for growth cone formation and axon growth and promotes central nervous system axon regeneration

    Hyo Rim Ko et al.
    Akt mediated S14 phosphorylation of Id2 augments its protein stability and growth cone localization, promoting growth cone formation and axon growth in the developing neuron and contributing to axon regeneration in the damaged hippocampus slice.