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    1. Neuroscience

    A genetically defined asymmetry underlies the inhibitory control of flexor–extensor locomotor movements

    Olivier Britz et al.
    Two classes of premotor inhibitory neurons have specific roles in controlling flexor-extensor behaviors in mice, which is the underlying neural mechanism for limb driven movements in terrestrial vertebrates.
    1. Neuroscience

    Synaptic representation of locomotion in single cerebellar granule cells

    Kate Powell et al.
    The first patch-clamp recordings from single cerebellar granule cells during locomotion reveal that the entire step sequence can be predicted from both excitatory synaptic input and output spikes from a single neuron.
    1. Neuroscience

    Cortex-wide BOLD fMRI activity reflects locally-recorded slow oscillation-associated calcium waves

    Miriam Schwalm et al.
    Locally recorded calcium events related to slow wave activity show a global cortical fMRI BOLD correlate, establishing a direct relation between a basic neurophysiological signal and the macroscopic perspective of pre-clinical fMRI.
    1. Neuroscience

    A primal role for the vestibular sense in the development of coordinated locomotion

    David E Ehrlich, David Schoppik
    Zebrafish use their sense of gravity and their cerebellum to coordinate the fin and body movements that, as they develop, allow them to better maintain balance as they climb.
    1. Neuroscience

    Noninvasive quantification of axon radii using diffusion MRI

    Jelle Veraart et al.
    Cell-specific architectural properties such as the axon diameter of the white matter of the human brain can be quantified accurately and non-invasively using diffusion magnetic resonance imaging.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Isoform-specific subcellular localization and function of protein kinase A identified by mosaic imaging of mouse brain

    Ronit Ilouz et al.
    High-resolution, large-scale immunohistochemical mouse brain images showing global views of different brain regions, as well as cellular and subcellular details, identified distinct localization of PKA RIβ and RIIβ regulatory subunits that reveal functional differences.
    1. Neuroscience

    Induced sensorimotor cortex plasticity remediates chronic treatment-resistant visual neglect

    Jacinta O'Shea et al.
    Tonic disinhibition of left motor cortex during prism adaptation enhanced consolidation of sensorimotor and cognitive prism after effects, causing lasting clinical gains in three patient cases with chronic treatment-resistant visual neglect.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Signalling through AMPA receptors on oligodendrocyte precursors promotes myelination by enhancing oligodendrocyte survival

    Eleni Kougioumtzidou et al.
    Electrically active axons in white matter stimulate their own myelination by releasing glutamate, which signals through AMPA-type glutamate receptors on nearby oligodendrocyte precursors and newly-differentiating oligodendrocytes, enhancing their survival and hence their ability to myelinate.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Insights into electrosensory organ development, physiology and evolution from a lateral line-enriched transcriptome

    Melinda S Modrell et al.
    An unbiased transcriptomic approach reveals that developing paddlefish electrosensory organs express genes essential for mechanosensory hair cell development and synaptic transmission, and identifies candidates for mediating electroreceptor development and function.
    1. Neuroscience

    Mushroom body output neurons encode valence and guide memory-based action selection in Drosophila

    Yoshinori Aso et al.
    Output neurons in the mushroom body of the fruit fly brain encode the positive or negative survival value of stimuli, enabling insects to choose adaptive approach and avoidance behaviors through associative learning.