Pronounced cerebellar activation during unexpected omission of a potentially harmful event suggests that the cerebellum has to be added to the neural network processing prediction errors underlying emotional associative learning.
Purkinje cell collaterals regulate processing in the input layer of the cerebellum by providing fast stochastic GABAA-mediated and slow GABAB-mediated inhibition to a specialized subset of unipolar brush cells.
Cerebellar Purkinje neurons use a multiplexed simple spike code combining synchrony/spike time and firing rate, with each component encoding distinct information about movements such as motion onset timing and kinematics.
The first patch-clamp recordings from single cerebellar granule cells during locomotion reveal that the entire step sequence can be predicted from both excitatory synaptic input and output spikes from a single neuron.
Individual granule cells within the cerebellum-the region of the brain that coordinates movement and supports the learning of new motor skills-receive both sensory and motor input streams: an arrangement that may help the brain to use feedback to fine-tune movement.
Physiological and behavioral analyses show that expression of cerebellar whisker learning can be mediated by increased simple spike activity, depending on LTP induction at parallel fiber to Purkinje cell synapses.