Individual granule cells within the cerebellum-the region of the brain that coordinates movement and supports the learning of new motor skills-receive both sensory and motor input streams: an arrangement that may help the brain to use feedback to fine-tune movement.
Electrophysiological recordings in monkeys reveal that cerebellar complex spikes encode future reward size when reward information is first made available, but not during reward delivery or smooth pursuit eye movement.
Patterned optogenetic stimulation and analysis of neural activity provide convergent evidence that cerebellar Purkinje cells drive eye movements with a rapid rate code, without an additional contribution of spike irregularity.
Single-cell RNA sequencing resolves inter- and intra-population heterogeneity, identifies rare cell types, and reconstructs specification trajectories during early neurogenesis of the mouse cerebellum.
Physiological and behavioral analyses show that expression of cerebellar whisker learning can be mediated by increased simple spike activity, depending on LTP induction at parallel fiber to Purkinje cell synapses.
Purkinje cells feature molecular heterogeneity that introduces differentiation in physiological properties between zebrin-identified cerebellar modules and thereby underlies the differential control on sensorimotor integration.