Neurons of the cholinergic system, which release the excitatory neurotransmitter acetycholine throughout the cortex, also release the inhibitory transmitter GABA, with potential implications for cognitive function.
Analyzing a map of all cholinergic neurons in the nematode C. elegans shows how these neurons are embedded in the C. elegans connectome and reveals the regulatory factors controlling their development.
To leverage the tools, resources and knowledge that exist for C. elegans so that we can study ecology, evolution and other aspects of biology, we need to understand the natural history of this important model organism.
The effects of chloride homeostasis can explain diverse responses of basal ganglia output neurons to putatively inhibitory inputs and may tune these neurons' synchrony, oscillations and behavior in decision-making scenarios.
Pathogenic LRRK2kinase requires Rab10 and RILPL1 to block primary cilia formation, shortening cilia on cholinergic neurons needed for a hedgehog driven circuit that supports dopaminergic neurons in mouse brain.