When the fear-enhancing effects of prior exposure to stress are absent, the expression of fear reflects normal neural activity in the medial prefrontal cortex, not stress-induced hyperactivity in the amygdala.
A novel opioid formulation producing analgesia similar to conventional opioids without permeation of blood-brain or intestinal barriers, thus precluding sedation, constipation and respiratory depression.
Genetic analyses in mice reveal a communication system between the knee joint and the developing bones that could be explored in studies addressing evolutionary changes in body proportions and in future therapies for growth disorders.
Chronic and excessive inflammation can lead to exhaustion of the supply of hematopoietic stem cells and to myeloid malignancies in mice, mimicking important aspects of the myelodysplastic syndrome found in humans.
A chronic stressor prior to mating has lasting negative consequences on the fertility and fecundity of female rats, which can be prevented by blocking a single hypothalamic reproductive inhibitory hormone.