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    1. Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine
    2. Immunology and Inflammation

    MicroRNA-146a acts as a guardian of the quality and longevity of hematopoietic stem cells in mice

    Jimmy L Zhao et al.
    Chronic and excessive inflammation can lead to exhaustion of the supply of hematopoietic stem cells and to myeloid malignancies in mice, mimicking important aspects of the myelodysplastic syndrome found in humans.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics
    2. Neuroscience

    Native α-synuclein induces clustering of synaptic-vesicle mimics via binding to phospholipids and synaptobrevin-2/VAMP2

    Jiajie Diao et al.
    Experiments on synthetic models of synaptic vesicles have shed new light on the role of the protein α-synuclein in the central nervous system.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Insect endosymbiont proliferation is limited by lipid availability

    Jeremy K Herren et al.
    The endosymbiont Spiroplasma can only proliferate if it can acquire sufficient hemolymph lipids from its insect host.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Structural basis for the activation of PLC-γ isozymes by phosphorylation and cancer-associated mutations

    Nicole Hajicek et al.
    The high-resolution X-ray crystal structure of PLC-γ1 reveals a unifying model for the regulation of the PLC-γ isozymes.
    1. Neuroscience

    Coding strategies in the otolith system differ for translational head motion vs. static orientation relative to gravity

    Mohsen Jamali et al.
    Through different coding strategies, irregular and regular otolith afferents preferentially encode translational self-motion and changes in static head orientation relative to gravity.
    1. Human Biology and Medicine
    2. Neuroscience

    mTORC1 in AGRP neurons integrates exteroceptive and interoceptive food-related cues in the modulation of adaptive energy expenditure in mice

    Luke K Burke et al.
    AGRP neurons integrate environmental food-related cues with internal metabolic signals to modulate interscapular brown adipose tissue thermogenesis and energy expenditure, at least in part, via mTORC1 signalling.
    1. Neuroscience

    A positive feedback loop linking enhanced mGluR function and basal calcium in spinocerebellar ataxia type 2

    Pratap Meera et al.
    A damaging form of positive feedback linking elevated calcium levels and metabotropic glutamate receptor function in Purkinje neurons plays a critical role in the pathology in spinocerebellar ataxias.
    1. Neuroscience

    Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition reduces stress-induced affective pathology

    Joyonna Carrie Gamble-George et al.
    Mechanistically distinct COX-2 inhibitors reduce stress-induced behavioral pathology via unique multimodal molecular mechanisms, and could be used to treat mood disorders.
    1. Neuroscience

    Acute stress enhances adult rat hippocampal neurogenesis and activation of newborn neurons via secreted astrocytic FGF2

    Elizabeth D Kirby et al.
    Exposing rats to acute stress increased the generation of new neurons in a subregion of the hippocampus, and improved the animals' performance in a memory task two weeks later.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression

    Growth hormone-releasing hormone disruption extends lifespan and regulates response to caloric restriction in mice

    Liou Y Sun et al.
    Mice with a mutation that disrupts the release of growth hormone show greatly increased lifespan, which can be further increased by caloric restriction.