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    1. Neuroscience

    Hippocampal activation is associated with longitudinal amyloid accumulation and cognitive decline

    Stephanie L Leal et al.
    Cognitively normal older adults show a positive relationship between neural activity during memory encoding and brain β-amyloid deposition rate over the subsequent 3-4 years, supporting preclinical data that associates neural activity with β-amyloid deposition.
    1. Evolutionary Biology

    Homo naledi and Pleistocene hominin evolution in subequatorial Africa

    Lee R Berger et al.
    A late Middle Pleistocene age for Homo naledi demonstrates a diversity of hominin species in Africa at this critical time in the archaeological record.
    1. Evolutionary Biology
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Co-option of an endogenous retrovirus envelope for host defense in hominid ancestors

    Daniel Blanco-Melo et al.
    The reconstitution of a functional envelope protein from an extinct hominid retrovirus reveals its receptor and an ancient host defense that may have led to the extinction of the virus.
    1. Neuroscience

    Salient experiences are represented by unique transcriptional signatures in the mouse brain

    Diptendu Mukherjee et al.
    Inducible transcription in the brain encodes detailed aspects of recent experience.
    1. Neuroscience

    Measurements and models of electric fields in the in vivo human brain during transcranial electric stimulation

    Yu Huang et al.
    Direct in-vivo measurements in the human brain test validity of detailed computational models of trancranial electric stimulation and show that electric fields in the brain are weaker than currently assumed.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    Convergence of topological domain boundaries, insulators, and polytene interbands revealed by high-resolution mapping of chromatin contacts in the early Drosophila melanogaster embryo

    Michael R Stadler et al.
    Fruit fly chromosomes are divided into discrete structural domains by regions of decompacted chromatin, suggesting a novel model for the formation of a known class of genetic elements.
    1. Neuroscience

    Test of the 'glymphatic' hypothesis demonstrates diffusive and aquaporin-4-independent solute transport in rodent brain parenchyma

    Alex J Smith et al.
    Solute movement in brain extracellular space is determined by solute diffusion, and does not depend on convection or aquaporin-4 expression as predicted by the glymphatic mechanism.
    1. Neuroscience

    Anatomical and functional organization of the human substantia nigra and its connections

    Yu Zhang et al.
    The human substantia nigra can be parcellated into three subdivisions that subserve emotional, cognitive and somatomotor function.
    1. Neuroscience

    Amygdala-ventral striatum circuit activation decreases long-term fear

    Susana S Correia et al.
    Behavior- or optogenetic-driven activation of a basolateral amygdala projection to the nucleus accumbens enhances infralimbic cortex activity and long-term fear extinction.
    1. Neuroscience

    A hierarchy of timescales explains distinct effects of local inhibition of primary visual cortex and frontal eye fields

    Luca Cocchi et al.
    The selective effect of local inhibition on diffuse patterns of brain connectivity can be accounted for by an intrinsic hierarchical ordering of cortical timescales.