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    1. Ecology
    2. Evolutionary Biology

    The Natural History of Model Organisms: The Norway rat, from an obnoxious pest to a laboratory pet

    Klaudia Modlinska, Wojciech Pisula
    The rat is much more than a simple model, and a better appreciation of the natural history of wild rats would increase its value as a research organism.
    1. Neuroscience

    mTORC1 in the orbitofrontal cortex promotes habitual alcohol seeking

    Nadege Morisot et al.
    In the orbitofrontal cortex, mTORC1, a multiprotein complex centered around the kinase mTOR, contributes to the development and/or maintenance of habitual alcohol seeking.
    1. Evolutionary Biology
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    Mutations that improve efficiency of a weak-link enzyme are rare compared to adaptive mutations elsewhere in the genome

    Andrew B Morgenthaler et al.
    Mutations elsewhere in the genome play critical roles in improving fitness during amplification and divergence of a gene encoding a weak-link enzyme whose inefficiency limits growth rate.
    1. Neuroscience

    Opioids modulate an emergent rhythmogenic process to depress breathing

    Xiaolu Sun et al.
    Inspiratory rhythmogenesis is mediated by an emergent mechanism independent of bursts associated with motor output and is modulated by opioids, pointing to strategies for ameliorating opioid-induced respiratory depression.
    1. Genetics and Genomics

    Diversification of the Caenorhabditis heat shock response by Helitron transposable elements

    Jacob M Garrigues et al.
    Helitron transposable elements, by providing high density transcription factor binding sites upstream of host genes, have diversified the heat shock response within and among Caenorhabditis species.
    1. Human Biology and Medicine
    2. Neuroscience

    Default mode-visual network hypoconnectivity in an autism subtype with pronounced social visual engagement difficulties

    Michael V Lombardo et al.
    Functional hypoconnectivity between ‘social brain’ default mode circuitry and visual association cortex underpins a subtype of autistic toddlers with a strong preference to attend to the non-social visual world.
    1. Genetics and Genomics

    Novel genetic loci affecting facial shape variation in humans

    Ziyi Xiong et al.
    A comprehensive genome scan of 18,000 multi-ethnic individuals with 3-dimensional facial images highlighted multiple face-associated genetic loci for which regulatory activities in human neural cells were established.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Plant Biology

    Evolution of C4 photosynthesis predicted by constraint-based modelling

    Mary-Ann Blätke, Andrea Bräutigam
    Constraint-based modelling predicts C4 photosynthesis evolves under resource limitation from an ancestral ground state of C3 photosynthesis and attributes divergent metabolic routes in extant C4 subtypes to light.
    1. Neuroscience

    Interhemispherically dynamic representation of an eye movement-related activity in mouse frontal cortex

    Takashi R Sato et al.
    Optogenetically induced motor disruption can evoke plasticity in the mouse frontal cortex that compensates for the motor deficits, accompanying changes in inter-hemispheric motor representation.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Cerebellar nuclei excitatory neurons regulate developmental scaling of presynaptic Purkinje cell number and organ growth

    Ryan T Willett et al.
    The first born excitatory cerebellar nuclei neurons influence the survival of their Purkinje cell partners which stimulate the expansion of granule cells and interneurons to produce functional local circuits.