In vivo recordings in unanesthetized zebrafish larvae show that Purkinje neurons have two stable membrane potential states and that climbing fiber inputs can toggle them to up states during motor episodes.
During learning, one climbing fiber input instructs plasticity that is expressed in the simple-spike responses of cerebellar Purkinje cells, and causes neural learning that may inhibit future climbing fiber instructions.
In behaving mice, inhibition from molecular layer interneurons attenuates excitation of Purkinje cells by parallel fibers and suppresses their ability to enhance climbing fiber-triggered dendritic Ca2+ responses.
Advances in techniques for analysing single cells and tissues have inspired an international effort to create comprehensive reference maps of all human cells - the fundamental units of life - as a basis for both understanding human health and diagnosing, monitoring and treating disease.
Structure specific nucleases that act in DNA replication, repair and recombination actively mold their DNA while transforming their own structure to achieve precise cleavage of their cognate DNA and avoid the deleterious cleavage of noncognate DNA.