In vivo recordings in unanesthetized zebrafish larvae show that Purkinje neurons have two stable membrane potential states and that climbing fiber inputs can toggle them to up states during motor episodes.
During learning, one climbing fiber input instructs plasticity that is expressed in the simple-spike responses of cerebellar Purkinje cells, and causes neural learning that may inhibit future climbing fiber instructions.
In behaving mice, inhibition from molecular layer interneurons attenuates excitation of Purkinje cells by parallel fibers and suppresses their ability to enhance climbing fiber-triggered dendritic Ca2+ responses.
Advances in techniques for analysing single cells and tissues have inspired an international effort to create comprehensive reference maps of all human cells - the fundamental units of life - as a basis for both understanding human health and diagnosing, monitoring and treating disease.
The helical rod structure and dynamic spring-like properties of the type 1 pilus are evolutionarily fine-tuned for functioning in host-pathogen interactions during urinary tract infection and gut colonization.
Minimizing anti-proliferation signaling from DNA damage detection machinery is the tactic for the cells to drive proliferation under genotoxic environment, and the function is exerted by Polo-Like-Kinase1 that is frequently over-expressed in cancer cells.