The structures of secretory and dimeric IgA reveal pseudosymmetric assemblies of two antibody monomers, in which possible positions of antigen-binding fragments and accessibility to receptor-binding sites are limited.
Tracking fluorescent fusion proteins in competent pneumococcal cells reveals a polar hub for competence regulation, with the alternative sigma factor σX relocalizing DprA to this hub to mediate competence shut-off.
Heterochromatic sequences evolve rapidly, as do ZAD-ZNF genes-encoding proteins involved in heterochromatin functions, explaining why evolutionarily dynamic ZAD-ZNF genes are more likely to be essential in Drosophila.
Dopaminergic medication dissociates contingent motivation from reward expectation effects on invigoration of movements in PD patients, confirming they are separate processes with different dopaminergic functions.
HIV-specific T cells remain detectable for years in HIV-infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy and importantly, mostly (68%) recognize HIV viruses that have the capacity to rebound following treatment interruption.
Without ribosome recycling factor, ribosomes in Escherichia coli accumulate in 3'-UTRs and queue upstream of stop codons, but no effects were observed on the translational coupling of neighboring genes.